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Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Historia iliyopendwa na wengi: HISTORY OF CHE GUEVALA.

Guevara, Ernesto "Che", 1928-1967


Ernesto "Che" Guevara
A critical look at the life of Latin American revolutionary, Ernesto "Che" Guevara.
After his remains were dug up in Boliva and reburied in Cuba a few years ago, public interest in Che was rekindled. The heroic cult that has developed around him took on new life, as hitherto unknown photos of his Bolivian campaign and two new biographies were published.
Whilst his image - on T-shirts, posters, and beer labels- continues to make money for capitalists, there seems to be a revival among the young in the idea of Che as idealistic hero and fighter for freedom. This hero cult seems to have infected many young radicals, some of whom regard themselves as anarchists. We take a look at his life and ideas...

The truth may be unpalatable to many. After all, the Che cult is still used to obscure the real nature of Castro's Cuba, one of the final bastions of Stalinism. As jaded Stalinists and fellow-travelling Trotskyists celebrate Che's anniversary we take a look at the real man behind the legend.
Born in Argentina to a Cuban aristocratic family who had fallen on hard times but who still had much wealth, Guevara had a comfortable upbringing. When Juan and Eva "Evita" Peron started on their rise to power, using populism and appeals to workers and peasants to install a regime that had many fascist characteristics (1944-1952) Guevara was still a youth. At this period he seemed remarkably disinterested in politics and failed to offer any opinions for or against the Peron regime.
Events in Guatemala were to change this. Arbenz, a leftist army officer, was elected as President. In 1952 he nationalised the property of the United Fruit Company, a major US company which owned much land and had great economic and political influence. He also began to nationalise the land of the local big ranchers and farmers. Guevara was caught up in enthusiasm for this experiment in 'socialism' which infected middle class Latin American youth. Just before a trip to Guatemala he wrote: " I have sworn before a picture of the old and mourned comrade Stalin that I won't rest until I see these capitalist octopuses annihilated".
Guevara was in Guatemala when a US backed invasion force smashed the Arbenz regime. He was able to flee to Mexico. Here he joined up with the Cubans around Fidel Castro and his brother Raul. In November 1956, Che and 80 other members of the July 26 Movement (J26M) founded by Fidel had landed in Cuba to carry on a guerrilla campaign against the US backed dictator Batista. Here Che proved to be the most authoritarian and brutal of the guerrilla leaders. In fact Che went about turning volunteer bands of guerrillas into a classic Army, with strict discipline and hierarchy.
As he himself wrote: "Due to the lack of discipline among the new men... it was necessary to establish a rigid discipline, organise a high command and set up a Staff". He demanded the death penalty for "informers, insubordinates, malingerers and deserters".
He himself personally carried out executions. Indeed the first execution carried out against an informer by the Castroists was undertaken by Che. He wrote: "I ended the problem giving him a shot with a .32 pistol in the right side of the brain".
On another occasion he planned on shooting a group of guerrillas who had gone on hunger strike because of bad food. Fidel intervened to stop him. Another guerrilla who dared to question Che was ordered into battle without a weapon!
Apart from the drive towards militarisation in the guerrilla groups, Che also had another important duty. He acted as the main spreader of Stalinism within J26M. He secretly worked towards an alliance with the Popular Socialist Party (the Cuban Communist Party). Up to then there were very few Stalinists within J26M and other anti-Batista groups like the Directorate and the anarchists were staunchly anti-Stalinist.
The communists were highly unpopular among the anti-Batista forces. They had been junior partners of the regime and had openly condemned Castro's previous attacks on Batista in 1953. They belatedly joined the guerrilla war.

With the Castroite victory in 1959, Che, along with his Stalinist buddy Raul Castro, was put in charge of building up state control. He purged the army, carried out re-education classes within it, and was supreme prosecutor in the executions of Batista supporters, 550 being shot in the first few months.
He was seen as extremely ruthless by those who saw him at work. These killings against supporters of the old regime, some of whom had been implicated in torture and murder, was extended in 1960 to those in the working class movement who criticised the Castro regime.
The anarchists and anarcho-syndicalists had their press closed down and many militants were thrown in prison. Che was directly implicated in this. This was followed in 1962 with the banning of the Trotskyists and the imprisonment of their militants. Che said: "You cannot be for the revolution and be against the Cuban Communist Party". He repeated the old lies against the Trotskyists that they were agents of imperialism and provocateurs.
He helped set up a secret police, the C-2 and had a key role in creating the Committees for the Defence of the Revolution, which were locally and regionally based bodies for spying on and controlling the mass of the population.
Missile deal


Real Madrid the Spanish Capital team is one of the important football clubs in history of soccer in Europe and in the world. This club has an interesting history check it out!

Formation of the Club:

Student from Institución libre de enseñanza and some Oxbridge graduates introduced football to Madrid. First the students began to play football in Moncloa in a team they formed called Football Club Sky in 1897. In 1900 the club split into two clubs New Foot-Ball De Madrid and Club Espanola De Madrid. In 1902 the club split again to form Real Madrid FC.

 In 1905 Real Madrid won their first cup after defeating Athletic Bilbao in Spanish Cup Final. On January 4 1909 Adolfo Melendez signed a foundation agreement of the Spanish FA, the club became then one of the founding sides of the Spanish Football Association. King Alfonso XIII named the club Real Madrid by giving them the title Real which means Royal.

In 1929, the Spanish Football League that is now La Liga was founded, Real Madrid were on the top of the chart but the team lost the last league match against Athletic Bilbao and ended up in the second place after Barcelona. The whites won the first league title in seasons 1931-1932 and won it the following season.

SantiagoBernabeau Yeste was Real president in 1945. Bernabeau rebuilt The Santiago Bernabeau Stadium and Ciudad Deportiva after the Spanish Civil war. Bernabeau then signed popular players like Di Stefano.

You may not know this but Bernabeau was the first to make the idea of UEFA Champion League. In 1955 theidea was first purposed by  the French sports journalist and editor of L’ÉquipeGabriel Hanot, and building upon the Copa Latina (a tournament involving clubs from France, Spain, Portugal and Italy), Bernabéu met in the Ambassador Hotel in Paris with Bedrignan and Gusztáv Sebes and created an exhibition tournament of invited European teams that is now UEFA Cahmpions League. Bernabeau did this step to make Real Madrid famous not only in Spain but also in Europe. Real won the cup for five consecutive times and was awarded UEFA badge of Hounors.

The Stadium:

After moving between grounds the team moved to the “Campo de O’Donnell” in 1912, which remained its home ground for eleven years. After this period, the club moved for one year to the Campo de Ciudad Lineal, a small ground with a capacity of 8,000 spectators. After that, Real Madrid moved its home matches to Estadio Chamartínwhich was inaugurated on 17 May 1923 wi Chujim w dupe h hosted 22,500 spectators, Real Madrid celebrated its first Spanish league title. In 14 December 1947 Santiago Bernabeau decided to build a new stadium that is the Sentiago. The first match held on Bernabéu was played between Real Madrid and the Portuguese club Belenenses and won by The Whites with 3–1, the first goal being scored by Sabino Barinaga.

The Bernabéu has hosted the 1964 European Championship final, the 1982 FIFA World Cup final, the 1957, 1969 and 1980 European Cup finals and is due to host the 2010 Champions League Final. The stadium has its own Madrid Metro station along the 10 line called Santiago Bernabéu. On 14 November 2007, the Bernabéu has been upgraded to Elite Football Stadium status by UEFA.

 On 9 May 2006, the Alfredo di Stéfano Stadium was built at the City of Madrid where Real Madrid usually trains. The first match was played between Real Madrid and Stade Reims, a rematch of the 1956 European Cup final. Real Madrid won the match 6–1 with goals from Sergio Ramos, Cassano (2), Soldado (2), and Jurado. The venue is now part of the Ciudad Real Madrid, the club’s new training facilities located outside Madrid in Valdebebas. The stadium holds 5,000 people and is Real Madrid Castilla’s home ground. It is named after former Real footballer Alfredo di Stéfano.
El Clasico and Madrid Derby:
The rivalry with Barcelona projects what some regard as the political tensions felt between Castilians and Catalans. From the early days of football in Spain the two clubs were seen as representatives of the Spanish State and Catalonia, as well as the two cities themselves which have moved in different directions culturally speaking. Though Spain’s first socialist party was founded in Madrid, almost all the ideas that have shaped country’s modern history – republicanism, federalism, anarchism, syndicalism and communism – have tended to be associated with Barcelona. On the other hand, Madrid is the seat of the government and of the royal family. Especially during the Francoist era, it came to represent the fascist, conservative, centripetal forces.

During the 1950s, the rivalry was intensified further when the clubs disputed the signing of Alfredo di Stéfano, who finally played for Real Madrid . The 1960s saw the rivalry reach the European stage when they met twice at the European Cup, Real Madrid winning in 1960 and Barça winning in 1961. In 2000, the rivalry was reinforced following the controversial decision by Luís Figo to leave Barça and sign for Real Madrid. The two teams met again in the 2002 UEFA Champions League semi-final. Real Madrid, the eventual champion, won the clash dubbed by Spanish media as the Match of the Century. As the two biggest and most successful clubs in the Spanish league, the rivalry is renewed on an annual basis with both teams often challenging each other for the league championship.

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