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Saturday, January 21, 2012

HISTORY OF INDIA THE LAND OF ANCIENT WISDOM..


 
information on INDIA
India is a grand country. It is the seventh largest country in the world and the second most populated country in the world. Many see India as a sub-continent rather than a country. There exist in different parts of India, different cultures, languages, manners as well as different historical backgrounds and influences of the same historical events. The official name for the country is Republic of India. The Indians call their country INDIA. There are also two other names for India less known outside India; BHARAT and HINDUSTANndia was a British colony. It earned its independence from the British on 15/08/1947. Day before that Pakistan which was created as a result of partition of British India was established and flanked on two sides of India: West Pakistan which is called today Pakistan, and east Pakistan, now an independent state called Bangladesh. After its independence, the political leaders of India adopted the liberal democratic system for the country.
Since its independence, India has transformed a lot. When India attained independence in 1947, its population was around 400 million people. Now there are billion people in India. India is the largest democracy in the world. It has the biggest number of people with franchise rights and the largest number of
political parties, which take part in election campaign.

Before its independence, India was never a single country but a bunch of different entities. Many predicted that India, because of diversities in its cultures,
religion, languages, castes, manners, local histories, nationalities and identities, would not survive as a single democratic country, but would break up into smaller countries.
Since independence, India had many political problems. During independence the most burning issues were the riots between the
Hindus and Muslims while the Sikhs were siding with Hindus. Another issue was convincing the Princely states not to declare independence or join Pakistan but to join the Indian Union. India also had a few wars with its neighbors on border issues.
India also has many internal problems. Different communities with different identities - regional, language, caste, religion - demanded different rights for their communities. Some communities demanded more autonomy for their cultures within the Indian states. Others demanded autonomous states within the Indian Union, while the others demanded to be independent from India.
With all its problems India survives as a single state with democratic character.

After independence, the Congress Party, the party of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, ruled India under the influence first of Nehru and then his daughter and grandson, with the exception of two brief periods in the 1970s and 1980s.
Prime Minister Nehru governed India until his death in 1964. He was succeeded by Lal Bahadur Shastri, who also died in office. In 1966, power passed to Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977. In 1975, beset with deepening political and economic problems, Mrs. Gandhi declared a state of emergency and suspended many civil liberties. Seeking a mandate at the polls for her policies, she called for elections in 1977, only to be defeated by Moraji Desai, who headed the Janata Party, an amalgam of five opposition parties.
In 1979, Desai's Government crumbled. Charan Singh formed an interim government, which was followed by Mrs. Gandhi's return to power in January 1980. On October 31, 1984, Mrs. Gandhi was assassinated, and her son, Rajiv, was chosen by the Congress (I)--for "Indira"--Party to take her place. His government was brought down in 1989 by allegations of corruption and was followed by V.P. Singh and then Chandra Shekhar.
In the 1989 elections, although Rajiv Gandhi and Congress won more seats in the 1989 elections than any other single party, he was unable to form a government with a clear majority. The Janata Dal, a union of opposition parties, was able to form a government with the help of the Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) on the right and the communists on the left. This loose coalition collapsed in November 1990, and the government was controlled for a short period by a breakaway Janata Dal group supported by Congress (I), with Chandra Shekhar as Prime Minister. That alliance also collapsed, resulting in national elections in June 1991.
On May 27, 1991, while campaigning in Tamil Nadu on behalf of Congress (I), Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated, apparently by Tamil extremists from Sri Lanka. In the elections, Congress (I) won 213 parliamentary seats and put together a coalition, returning to power under the leadership of P.V. Narasimha Rao. This Congress-led government, which served a full 5-year term, initiated a gradual process of economic liberalization and reform, which has opened the Indian economy to global trade and investment. India's domestic politics also took new shape, as traditional alignments by caste, creed, and ethnicity gave way to a plethora of small, regionally based political parties. 
INDIAN MOVIE. 
Dadasaheb Phalke was solely responsible for making the first silent Hindi Movie in the year 1913. This first movie consisted in all of four reels and the movie also consisted of Inter Titles in English and Hindi. This first Hindi Movie was called Raja Harischandra.
This silent movie very poignantly depicted the story of a benevolent king, who sacrificed his kingdom, family and material wealth, for upholding the ideals, which he cherished most. These ideals for which he sacrificed everything were namely truth and integrity – which are in fact the two rare qualities completely absent in our present day rulers and politicians.
The decade of the 1950s in the Hindi Movie Industry had been studded with films such as Raj Kapoor's Awara, Bimal Roy's Do Bigha Zamin,Guru Dutt's Pyasa and Mehboob's Mother India. These movies won popular acclaim but at the same time they successfully raised very relevant and pertinent rural and urban issues.
These movies brought to the fore stories of exploitation in independent India. In fact these movies had succeeded in carving a distinct and lasting niche for themselves. There were neither labeled as 'art house' or as 'commercial' cinema.

In the late 1960’s 'Realism' was the distinctive hallmark of the Hindi Movie Industry. But somehow the films of this genre did not find wide acclaim and remained confined to a niche audience of viewers. These viewers were made up of sections within the urban educated elite.
The Hindi Movie industry is still meandering its way in aim of trying to find the right formula that would enable the box-office registers to ring loudly.
The term culture refers to a state of intellectual development or manners. The social and political forces that influence the growth of a human being is defined as culture.
Indian culture is rich and diverse and as a result unique in its very own way. Our manners, way of communicating with one another, etc are one of the important components of our culture. Even though we have accepted modern means of living, improved our lifestyle, our values and beliefs still remain unchanged. A person can change his way of clothing, way of eating and living but the rich values in a person always remains unchanged because they are deeply rooted within our hearts, mind, body and soul which we receive from our culture.
Indian culture treats guests as god and serves them and takes care of them as if they are a part and parcel of the family itself. Even though we don’t have anything to eat, the guests are never left hungry and are always looked after by the members of the family. Elders and the respect for elders is a major component in Indian culture. Elders are the driving force for any family and hence the love and respect for elders comes from within and is not artificial. An individual takes blessings from his elders by touching their feet. Elders drill and pass on the Indian culture within us as we grow.
“Respect one another” is another lesson that is taught from the books of Indian culture. All people are alike and respecting one another is ones duty. In foreign countries the relation between the boss and the employee is like a master and slave and is purely monetary whereas in Indian culture the relation between the boss and the employee is more like homely relations unlike foreign countries.
Helpful nature is another striking feature in our Indian culture. Right from our early days of childhood we are taught to help one another in need of help and distress. If not monetary then at least in kind or non-monetary ways. Indian culture tells us to multiply and distribute joy and happiness and share sadness and pain. It tells us that by all this we can develop co-operation and better living amongst ourselves and subsequently make this world a better place to live in.
Even though India is a country of various religions and caste our culture tells us just one thing 'phir bhi dil hai Hindustani '.Dance forms in India : Folk music and tradition is the rich heritage of modern India. Despite the advent of technology, open communication and developments in all fields, the area of fine arts still gives a proud picture of our India. Dance is a part of celebration and is the intrinsic part of Indian glory. There are folk dances which are distinct and distinguished as per the geography. This also calls for a lot of make up talents and attire which only enhances the beauty of the dance and song.
Indian dance forms have traveled internationally and there are many academies of Indian dance forms abroad. The participation is a great impetus to the tradition of India and a boon for the NRI’s who love associating themselves with Indian culture. Bharatnatyam is the most renowned form of dance from the South. Kept alive by sincere efforts of traditional gurus and the allegiance of many students, this is a dance form which is almost a religion to many who revere it.

The Bharatanatyam dance is usually done with bent knees in a forward position and has the opportunity of display the Nav Ras or the emotions. The make up style and attire is very typical and hence allows a lot of expression. Kuchupidi is a characteristic dance form again from the south. Kathakali and has a lot to do like enacting a play and the use of mask, gear and get up. There are many schools that impart training and seeking this form of dance knowledge is a journey by itself.
The ghumar dance of Rajashtan is a lot about rotation and typical palm movements. The ghungrus and the ghungat impart more style to this type of dance. The Lavani of Maharasthra is now being revoked by sincere people and the type of dance is now again getting traditional in its concept without being polluted by other influences. The gharba dance which was a form of raas by the gopis and Krishna is now being followed in all parts of India. There is enough commercialization in the 9 day festival in metros and the participation is done on a wide scale.

The Manipuri and Oddissi dance is very ethnic in its concept. There are a number of folk dances which still happen in the villages where the authentic lifestyle of rural India is displayed. Dance is the main form of artistic entertainment along with folk songs and other influences that is brought in by cinema. Acknowledging the subtle distinguishing points, the essence of Indian dance form is pure and unique.
 
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